Overarching Themes, Benefits & Potential Challenges
Related to 360° VR & Education
Found in Peer Reviewed Literature


POTENTIAL CHALLENGE: 360 VR needs to be explicitly taught before the VR experience.

POTENTIAL SOLUTION: Create a user guide that you teach beforehand, and provide practive time.


Students can become distracted without direction, videos being too long, limited/restricted movement.
VR sickness.

Students using a helmet have less distractions by not seeing classmates, significantly more engaged and exhibited lower unrelated thoughts.
Increase focus through the addition of game elements like badges and points, allowing time to explore the environment prior to completing the specified tasks.
Allow students to sit in a swivel chair.


POTENTIAL CHALLENGE: VR lessons need to be goal oriented and linked to immersive/accurate/specific representations using VR.

Provide a question that encourages them to watch and engage with the content in the VR Classroom, providing a context for students to mentally adopt another's POV so they may EXPERIENCE not just OBSERVE.


360 VR based on the local community benefits young urban students with context specific imagery, which increases relevancy. Well placed/used VR increases academic achievement, engagement, attitudes, self efficacy.


360 VR increases access and evens the playing field. VR is effective as an affordable, high quality, accurate representation for experiences too expensive, dangerous or otherwise too complex to physically replicate, medicine, military, fire safety sim, training modules mechanical engineering…

Works Consulted:

Boda, Phillip A., and Bryan Brown. “Designing for Relationality in Virtual Reality: Context-Specific Learning as a Primer for Content Relevancy.” Journal of Science Education and Technology, vol. 29, no. 5, Sept. 2020, pp. 691–702, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-020-09849-1.

Damian Maher & John Buchanan (2021) 360 degree representation: desktop virtual reality combined with analytics in the primary school classroom, Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 30:4, 609-622, DOI: 10.1080/1475939X.2021.1939770

Gorman, Daniel, et al. “Using Virtual Reality to Enhance Food Technology Education.” International Journal of Technology & Design Education, vol. 32, no. 3, July 2022, pp. 1659–77, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10798-021-09669-3.

Jiang, Yang, et al. “‘It’s Like I’m Really There’: Using VR Experiences for STEM Career Development.” Journal of Science Education and Technology, vol. 30, no. 6, Dec. 2021, pp. 877–88, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-021-09926-z.

Levonis, Stephan M., et al. “360° Virtual Laboratory Tour with Embedded Skills Videos.” Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 98, no. 2, Feb. 2021, pp. 651–54, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.0c00622.

Sabine Tan, Michael Wiebrands, Kay O’Halloran & Peter Wignell (2020) Analysing student engagement with 360-degree videos through multimodal data analytics and user annotations, Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 29:5, 593-612, DOI: 10.1080/1475939X.2020.1835708

Srinivasa, Arun R., et al. “Virtual Reality and Its Role in Improving Student Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Attitude in the Materials Testing Laboratory.” International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education, vol. 49, no. 4, Oct. 2021, pp. 382–409, https://doi.org/10.1177/0306419019898824.

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360 VR: Ideas for my learning environment or instructional design component....

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